Introduction & Methods

A principal question regarding any investigation into the deaths of Nadeem Nawara and Mohammad Abu Daher is whether the shooters fired live or rubber-coated bullets. This is a particularly pertinent question as the videos available show both guns having an extension fixed on the barrel of their M16 rifles meant to allow for the firing of rubber bullets. This fact was raised by Israeli spokespersons to deny responsibility for the two boys’ killings based on a claim that it is impossible to fire live rounds through such installation.


Our investigation established that, despite claims to the contrary, live ammunition can be fired through an extension for rubber-coated bullets. The manufacturer of an Israeli produced rubber bullet extensions states thus much in its promotional material.

Catalogue Product Page of a Rubber Coated Steel Bullet Extension from the Israeli Military Industries


The question then became how we can determine whether live ammunition was fired through an extension for rubber-coated bullets or not? In order to address this, we analysed the mechanical functioning of an M16 rifle when it fires live ammunition and compared it to situations when it fires rubber coated bullets.

Next: Live Fire