This forensic audio analysis provides supporting evidence that Nadeem Nawara was shot to death by live ammunition and not a rubber-coated bullet. Importantly, the sonic analysis of Nadeem Nawara’s death paved the way to learn more about how Mohammad Abu Daher was killed. The video, architectural and weapon analyses chapters of this report help create a strong supporting case for what then becomes audible in Nawara’s killing. Without a video-image of the shooting or pathological report we only had the sound as evidence of Abu Daher’s death. Nawara’s case then allowed us to build solid forensic audio evidence, which suggests that Abu Daher was also killed by live ammunition shot through a rubber bullet extension.


Another important conclusion from this audio forensic investigation is the identification of a distinct sound that is not a rubber coated bullet sound, nor is it the sound of live fire but rather a confluence of the two. We have in effect identified the sonic signature of live ammunition fired through a rubber bullet extension. This is an important sound signature to identify because coded within this suppressed sound is an intentionality to disguise the act of murder. This sound is therefore important for us to be able to identify in any protest or in any situation where the tools of institutionalized violence cross the threshold into acts of wanton bloodshed. In this regard understanding how the crowd of protesters reacted to this particular sonic signature is important in that it allows us to understand that live ammunition shot through a rubber bullet extension is a recurring and continued threat.