In the CNN footage that captures the killing of Nadeem Nawara there are two gunshots that can be sonically isolated.
The First Shot
What do we know about this first shot?
- This is the shot that killed Nadeem Nawara as is identified in the preceding chapters of this report.
- We can see that the shooter who fires this shot has a rubber bullet extension mounted on his M16 rifle.
- The pathologists report confirms the fact that Nawara was killed by live ammunition.
Therefore this first shot provides us with a clear sonic example of a live fire shot through a rubber bullet extension installed on an M16 gun.
The most useful tool in the sonic analysis of these gun shots is Spectrographs. A spectrograph is a visual rendition of sound, They are read by the bottom axis as time and the left axis as frequency range from low to high. The intensity of the sound at a particular time and frequency is represented by color temperature; The highest intensity at -20db being deep red and lowest intensity at -120db being black.
The Second Shot
By synchronizing the CCTV footage with a still photograph that captures the rubber-coated bullet in mid-flight we identified the second shot from the CNN footage as rubber coated bullet gunfire.
The shot provides us with a clear example of the sound of M16 firing rubber-coated bullets through the rubber bullet extension.
What is the sonic difference between these two shots?
By comparing the Spectrographs we see two major distinctions between the sound of live fire and the sound of rubber-coated bullet gunfire when shot from an M16 with a rubber bullet extension.
- That the live ammunition fired through a rubber bullet extension is much louder in the higher frequencies between 15khz and above than the rubber-coated bullet. e.g at around 16khz it is approximately 50db louder.
- The gunfire of a rubber-coated bullet is much louder in the lower frequencies at 2KHz and below. e.g at around 0.5khz it is around 20db louder.
The CNN footage only provides us with these two samples to compare. However with the corroboration of visual analysis that show the first shot is live ammunition and that the second shot is a rubber coated bullet we can use the sonic distinctions shown above to see if the same pattern of acoustic behavior can be observed in other samples of gunfire recorded that day. Even though the other gunfire is recorded on different audio equipment, the shots display similar sound characteristics. It is the pattern of distinction between live fire and rubber-coated bullets internal to each recording device that is important.
Moreover by analyzing the PBC Palestine footage to see how these shots behave acoustically we can find out if the shot that killed Nawara resembles that which killed Mohammad Abu Daher.